Page 35 - European Energy Innovation - Spring 2017 publication
P. 35

Spring 2017 European Energy Innovation              35


require the deployment of all existing      Figure: CO2 emission projections (million tonnes).
GHG reduction measures and the
development of new technologies
and operational strategies to increase
energy efficiency. Given that emission
reductions often result in cost savings,
these measures are categorised in
economic terms by listing them on
the basis of the costs reductions or
increases that they can generate, often
making use of the so-called Marginal
Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs).
Generally these measures are divided
into operational measures, technical
measures and alternative fuels and
forms of propulsion.

Operational measures include changes        Source: IMO 3rd GHG Study, table 78; and assumptions based on Anderson, K., and
in ship operational variables such          Bows, A. (2012). ‘Executing a Scharnow turn: reconciling shipping emissions with
as speed, routing, etc. that can be         international commitments on climate change’, Carbon Management, 3(6): 615-628,
performed without or with limited           and IPCC, 2014. Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report, Cambridge: Cambridge
technical changes on board of vessels.      University Press.
Technical measures refer to the physical
modification of machinery or the            of meeting the required emission           area is being developed has been
structure of the vessel, while alternative  reductions simply because of lack of       slower than what would be
fuels and forms of propulsion entail        fuel-stock for alternative fuels, limited  advisable considering the challenges
more substantial modification of the        technology uptake or slow shipping         ahead and the long times that the
type of fuel burned by the ship or the      fleet renewal rates.                       industry needs to react to new
main form of propulsion, such as LNG,                                                  environmental regulation under rather
methanol, wind, etc.                        Such outlook does not only call for a      challenging market conditions. The last
                                            clear and decisive regulatory response     thing that the sector needs is to start
Assessing how GHG emissions can             to shipping but also for additional        questioning the foundations of climate
be reduced through these measures           resources to be invested in the sector.    science on which to develop its future
is a complex exercise and estimating        The pace at which regulation in this       policies. l
MACCs a few decades ahead
needs relying upon assumptions on           Contact details:
technology cost reductions, demand          Dr. Michele Acciaro
development and innovation uptake           Associate Professor of Maritime Logistics
rates, among other factors, that            Kühne Logistics University,
inevitably limit the accuracy of the        Großer Grasbrook 17, 20457 Hamburg, Germany
estimates. Existing literature on the
efficacy of these measures, however,        E-mail:
shows that the emission reductions
for the global fleet achievable with        Tel.: +49 40 328707-281
cost effective measures will not allow
meeting the targets associated with         Web:
a fair allocation of CO2e budgets to
shipping. Depending on maritime
transport demand growth and
regulatory developments, even non-
cost effective measure could fall short
   30   31   32   33   34   35   36   37   38   39   40