Page 49 - European Energy Innovation - Autumn 2016 publication
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Autumn 2016 European Energy Innovation      49


be delayed during the night without       potential in supporting an economic         The Nikola project was born. The
consequence to the driving needs of       and stable power system based on            project partners created a so-called
the user).                                renewable energy.                           service catalog. E.g. a list of all the kind
                                                                                      of services that the electric vehicle
The vehicle may even be able to deliver   BRIEF HISTORY OF V2G                        could provide to the power system
power from the main propulsion            The leading expert on V2G, and the first    both on a local (distribution gird) and
battery back into the electric grid upon  to thoroughly explore its application,      system-wide (transmission net and
demand. This ability is called “vehicle   is Professor Willett Kempton of the         market) level. The approach was then
to grid” or simply V2G.                   University Of Delaware.                     to go through all of these services to
                                                                                      understand the technical and economic
These capabilities combined means         Back in 1996 Professor Kempton saw          potential of each.
that electric vehicle has a strong        the potential in using the electric
                                          vehicle battery, an expensive asset         These services included adaptive
                                          which remains unused for 23 hours           charging, where charging is simply
                                          a day (while a vehicle is parked), to       delayed to reflect the price of energy
                                          support the power system.                   or the renewable content in the grid at
                                                                                      a certain point in time.
                                          The concept was first described in the
                                          1997 publication “Electric vehicles as a    It also included services that hinder
                                          new power source for electric utilities”.   the adverse effects that a fast-charging
                                                                                      vehicle may have on a local distribution
                                          Over the coming years Professor             network – creating bottlenecks and
                                          Kempton not only demonstrated that          overloading. All of these services were
                                          vehicles, with relatively slight soft- and  tested either in the university labs or
                                          hardware additions could be made to         as part of a field test in a small Danish
                                          support bidirectional powerflow (V2G)       town.
                                          – but also that there is an economic
                                          incentive in participating in power         One of the largest accomplishments
                                          market products where the EV owner          of the project however, was when a
                                          is compensated for letting her vehicle      large vehicle company, Nissan Motors,
                                          support the power system.                   decided to join the project.

                                          THE NIKOLA PROJECT – A DANISH               This allowed the Nikola partners to
                                          APPLICATION OF V2G                          carry out the services using state-of-
                                          Seventeen years after the idea was          the-art series produced vehicles which
                                          first formulated, a Danish project          even supported the V2G capability.
                                          was initiated to perform a thorough
                                          investigation of how electric vehicles      The advanced visionary V2G concepts
                                          can support the power system in a           conceived in 1996 could now be tested
                                          Danish context.                             on present-day electric vehicles already
                                                                                      driving in the thousands on Danish
                                          A group of researches from the              roads.
                                          Technical University Of Denmark had
                                          already worked for some years on EV         Together with Project partners, NUVVE,
                                          research and had started cooperating        Nissan and ENEL, it became possible
                                          with Professor Kempton and his team.        to demonstrate that two Nissan Leafs
                                                                                      reliably could deliver frequency
                                          By 2013 it was time to investigate how      containment services adhering to
                                          the knowledge and technology of             Danish ancillary service terms.
                                          professor Kempton could be applied
                                          to, and benefit a European power system.    In the experiment the Leafs where
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