Page 54 - European Energy Innovation - Autumn 2014
P. 54
Autumn 2014 European Energy Innovation


Bibliography: solar photovoltaic electricity The average European residential
Dr. Arnulf Jäger–Waldau is a Scientific Officer system market in Europe has an electricity price given by
and Senior Scientist at the Renewables and influence on the choice of solar EUROSTAT for the 2nd Semester
Energy Efficiency Unit, Institute for Energy and modules and inverters as well. If 2013 was 0.201 €/kWh and higher
Transport of the European Commission’s Joint these manufacturing industries than PV generated electricity for
Research Centre since 2001. He works on the contract further, the willingness the lower ROI financing options,
assessment of renewable energy technologies, for public R&D weakens and with which are more realistic for
the effectiveness of their implementation, their it the ability of the equipment private consumers. Denmark,
integration into energy infrastructures and the manufacturing industry to Germany, Cyprus and Ireland had
role of renewable energy for climate change innovate fast enough to stay the highest prices with 0.294 €/
mitigation. competitive and provide the kWh, 0.292 €/kWh, 0.248 €/kWh
next generation of equipment and 0.241 €/kWh respectively.
Since 1987 he works in the field of material needed for further cost reduction. It has to be mentioned, that the
research for solar cells and holds patents on However, these job effects are LCOE in Cyprus are more than
semiconductor material deposition for thin film much more difficult to quantify 20% lower due to the higher solar
solar cells and solar module design. and therefore often neglected radiation.
in the overall assessment of the
He has more than 200 publications in peer sector. Without any support, the
reviewed journals and conference proceedings profitability of a solar PV system
ranging from materials research for PV and solar The second main consequence of primarily depends on the self-
cell development to market studies and policy the decreasing solar photovoltaic consumption by the owner, as
evaluations for Renewable Energies. He is the electricity system market in less energy has to be purchased
author of the European Commission’s annual Europe is the fact, that European from the utility. In the case of a
“Photovoltaic Status Report”, which is published citizens are not harvesting the PV system size that generates
annually since 2002. fruits of electricity below the as much electricity over a year
residential retail price, which is as the customer uses, the actual
Since 2011 he is the Technical Chairman now available for a large number consumption during the time
of the European Photovoltaic Solar Energy of them. of generation is in general just
Conference (EUPVSEC) and the European Co- around 30% if no demand shifting
Chair of the upcoming 6th World Conference In July 2014 the European or local storage is applied.
on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion to be held average price of a residential Therefore, 70% of the generated
in Kyoto, Japan in November 2014. system was 1.27 €/Wp including electricity has to be sold to the
installation but without tax and grid. The question is at which
Dr. Jäger-Waldau was a Lead Author for Solar administrative and connection price: contract, wholesale or
Energy of the Special Report of the IPCC costs. Taking this price and day ahead price. The second
on Renewable Energy and Climate Change adding a surcharge of 0.13 €/Wp option is to size the system
Mitigation published in 2011. He served as for fees, permitting, insurance that it only provides 30% of the
a reviewer of the Global Energy Assessment etc., an installed PV system costs used electricity, all electricity is
Report (GEA) published in 2012 and of the 5th 1,400 €/kWp without financing used locally and nothing is fed
Assessment Report (AR5) of IPCC. and VAT. to the grid. In the case where
all the generated system is self-
He serves as Academic Committee Vice It is interesting to note that consumed, VAT is added to the
Chairman member of the Asian Photovoltaic already at 5% Return on system price, because it can not
Industry Association (APVIA), member of the Investment (ROI) the financing be considered a commercial
International Advisory Board of the Warsaw costs are the largest single operation.
University Photovoltaic Centre and member cost factor. Together with fees
of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Solar and permitting costs they Table 3 shows at what price
Research Centre of the Bulgarian Academy of contribute to one third of the surplus electricity has to be sold to
Science. From 2005 to 2013 he was a member electricity generation costs from a break even with a ROI of 3% and
of the Executive Committee of the European residential PV system during the what are the savings for a system
Materials Research society (E-MRS). first 20 years. where no electricity is sold.
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