Page 34 - European Energy Innovation - Summer 2017 publication
P. 34

34  Summer 2017 European Energy Innovation


From near zero energy to
zero CO2 emission building
At the start of this decade, carbon emissions and
               energy consumption increased faster, as was        production of energy from renewable sources. In essence
               predicted by the Roman club in their expertise     it should also focus on the concept of reducing energy
               Beyond the limits in 1992. It is well known, that  consumption, by working on the technical and system
the buildings sector in the EU consumes more than 40 %            characteristics of the buildings, which account for about
of total energy use. This problem became a priority at the        40 % of the gross final consumption of energy. As member
                                                                  states have different climates and RES availability, it is also

EU Commission with the adoption of the Directive 2012 /           reflected in their energy policies. In EU regions, where solar
27 / & Directive 2010 / 31 Energy Performance of Buildings        radiation is stronger and more consistent and where the
and Energy Efficiency. At present, across most of the EU, the     seasonal temperatures are higher (e.g. Italy, France, Greece,

political will for such action to enhance energy efficiency       Malta), the requirement is for active heating and cooling by
in buildings, and integrating renewable energies appears          optimising passive design. In EU region where the climate

to be diverse. The EU Directive proposes that after 2020 all      is harsher and where exposure to light and solar heat is
new buildings must be (near) zero energy as well as near          reduced (e.g. Slovenia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania)it is

zero CO2 emission buildings on energy use (NZCO2EB).              preferable to use higher efficiency systems and equipment
Although there has been much recent focus on measures to          as well as biomass as a primary energy source.

reduce emissions from new buildings, the existing building

stock remains largely untouched and many refurbishment            Many demonstration sites show that near zero energy and

projects miss opportunities to reduce emissions and               CO2 buildings already exist. In one case of an existing public
                                                                  building, a rough analysis of the opportunities to achieve
deliver low CO2 buildings. Knowledge of how to build new
excellent energy-efficient buildings, and how to refurbish        near zero energy has been produced. The building, built in

existing buildings to achieve greater improvements in             1975, with a prefabricated construction system of a net area
                                                                  of 365 m2 has 10 cm mineral wool thermal insulation with
energy efficiency & CO2 reduction, is already in place.           salonite façade panels and plaster. The wooden ceiling was
It often makes economic sense, like any innovation

once volume is increased, costs will decrease. There are          covered with gypsum cardboard panels and 15 cm thermal
demonstrations of what is possible, but many barriers to          insulation. The building has been energy renovated except

widespread mainstream effective action remain. The Energy         for the heating system. Two possible scenarios have been
Roadmap 2050 is encouraging, but it is long-term strategy.
Accelerated action is necessary before 2020, hence the            developed to achieve near zero CO2 as a result of energy
need for policy adoption in the regions of ZEROCO2, which         use: 1) biomass boiler and photovoltaics, 2) Heat pump and

                                                                  photovoltaics (see Table below).

show what is possible. There exist many new innovative            Table: Evaluated scenarios toward near zero CO2 building.
concepts, such as passive house, net metering, smart grid
etc. There are many innovative standards across the EU28,                                   Building-  Building –    Building –
but for the purpose of this part of the project, ZEROCO2 is                                  current   NZCO2EB       NZCO2EB
showing that codes are evolving. Adopting passive house                                       status   measures      measures
or a similar quality as the standard for both new build and                                            Scenario 1    Scenario 2
the refurbishment of existing buildings will bring many           Energy need for           21.578
benefits, some of which are outlined in this paper. There are     heating kWh/a             1.352        21.798        21.997
many policies and technologies which lead to the near zero                                  8.945
CO2 and near zero energy buildings. This is shown in recent       Energy need for                      1.355         1.352
research which indicates that over 70 per cent of global          cooling kWh/a
energy use could be saved by practically achievable design.                                                8.945          17.436
Partners form 8 member states within the project “ZEROCO2         Use of electricity kWh/a                 9.090          18.200
Promotion of near zero CO2 emission buildings due to                                                   (produced)      (produced)
energy use”, have finished the overview of the national,          CO2 emissions kg/a        9.056
regional as well as local policies in this field. The findings                                             4.741     9.241 (without
were gathered by the Regional Policy Reports and published        Operating costs per       2.800      (without PH)         PH)
                                                                  year (EUR/a) (heating                 0 (with PH)
                                                                  and electricity)                                     0 (with PH)

in one document- Common study.                                    As shown on the table it is evident that the both scenarios
                                                                  lead toward zero CO2, but scenario 1 has higher operating

The overview of the Regional Policiy Reports underlines           costs because of the use of biomass meaning that, from the
that the idea behind the reduction of energy coming from          operating point of view, the scenario 2 is more suitable for
fossil sources often has, as its starting point, the increased    implementation without considering investment costs. l

Contact details:
   29   30   31   32   33   34   35   36   37   38   39