Page 58 - European Energy Innovation - Summer 2015 publication
P. 58
Summer 2015 European Energy Innovation


which enables fewer delays, less The standard approach for representing primarily intra-EU
holding and non-direct routings dealing with greenhouse gas operators, the decision was
caused by Europe’s currently emissions from most parts of the disappointing for its membership.
inefficient air traffic control, can global economy is enshrined in At best, the scheme will capture
also help to cut down fuel usage the United Nations Framework between 25-28 per cent of
and the industry’s overall fuel Convention on Climate Change aviation CO2 emissions in
burn by as much as 10 per cent. (UNFCCC), of which the Europe meaning that it will be
More efficient use of fuel is also Kyoto Protocol is a subsidiary environmentally ineffective while
being achieved through new mechanism. The Kyoto Protocol adding complexity and cost to
engine technology, lower weight provides limits on emissions to be European business for airlines
aircraft and more aerodynamically placed on the developed world, to achieve compliance and
efficient aircraft. while the developing world is verification of emissions.
not subject to such restrictions.
With regards to alternative fuels The industry has been urging Modern jet aircraft are 75%
to jet fuel (kerosene), operators, governments to back the industry quieter than the first models that
fuel companies and regulators plan for reducing emissions and entered into service and each new
are working to develop biofuels to agree to develop a single, Considerable progress has been
as a complimentary fuel source global market-based measure made in recent years in reducing
to existing carbon-based fuel. for the aviation sector. At the the noise generated by aircraft,
Over 1,500 passenger flights 38th ICAO Assembly in 2013, the driven by technological and
operating partially on sustainable industry’s suggestion was taken design improvements and control
biofuels have taken place so far. It up and agreement was reached of operations at airports. For
is expected that carbon reduction among governments to develop example, lining up aircraft with the
from moving to alternative fuels a global measure, to be settled at runway as far as 70km away from
could be up to 80 per cent the next ICAO Assembly in 2016 the airport and then approaching
compared with traditional jet and be ready for implementation in a continuous descent can more
fuel, but the challenge now is from 2020. The work to design than halve the acoustic energy that
to industrialise the production such a scheme is now taking reaches the ground, according
of biofuel and ensure that the place through the ICAO process. to an international research
infrastructure is available to consortium. On the one hand
supply the fuel to the point of use In Europe the main tool for aircraft get quieter, on the other
at airports. aviation is the EU Emissions airports and air traffic controllers
Trading System (EU ETS) – work to provide operational noise
Despite progress by the industry aviation was included in the EU mitigation measures and the work
on reducing its emissions through ETS from 2012. The original aim of local governing authorities
the first three pillars, they will not was to capture all flights that with the aviation industry to more
be sufficient to meet the goal of arrived or departed from an EU appropriately zone areas around
carbon-neutral growth from 2020. airport. However, following huge airports.
Therefore, at least for a period of international opposition, the
time, there will be a need to turn EU amended the scheme and The aviation industry is committed
to a market-based measure to excluded international flights to addressing its impact on the
meet that cap on aviation’s CO2 (outside the EU) for one year environment and has made
in 2012. The ‘freeze’ has been impressive progress on a number
emissions. The industry has extended until at least 2016 but, of counts. It will continue to work
argued since 2008 that any in practice, this means that only with governments, aircraft and
market-based measure for air flights within the EU are included engine manufacturers, airports
transport must be global in scope, in the scheme. and air navigation service
to reflect the global nature of the providers towards enabling ever
industry. For ERA, as an organisation greener skies. l
   53   54   55   56   57   58   59   60   61   62   63