Page 27 - European Energy Innovation - Autumn 2014
P. 27
Autumn 2014 European Energy Innovation 27


Future energy mix used by
shipping can reduce the oily
waste significantly

By Guido VAN MEEL, secretary general of EUROSHORE INTERNATIONAL (a non-profit association of waste
contractors specialised in ships’ waste)

Heavy fuel oil (HFO) produced in the refinery, which are not interested in the recycling
or residual oil is a varies in function of the crude of waste oil, several small scale
by-product of crude oil and the technology used. In refineries are set up to recycle
oil refining process, literature some sources mention part of these waste streams.
and as such containing a lot a sludge production between 1%
of the contaminants removed and 2% of the fuel consumption. Due to the increasing impact of
from the lighter oils. That means That means that a 14000TEU the exhaust gasses of ships on
that heavy metals, sulphur and container vessel with an average air quality, acid rain, particular
other pollutants are present in daily consumption of 200t HFO matter in sensitive or areas such
heavy fuel oil. This makes it much will produce between 2 and 4ton as Northern Europe or areas with
cheaper than other lighter marine sludge per 24h. On a voyage an existing air quality problem
fuels and is the main reason it is from Singapore to Western such as the North sea countries,
used in marine engines. Europe this means that between the East and West Coast of
40 and 80m3 of sludge (waste oil) North America; the International
HFO is very viscous and requires is generated. Maritime Organisation ( IMO)
to be kept at a temperature above has created special areas. In
pour point in bunkers and storage The MARPOL 73-78 Convention these special areas ships are not
tanks to ensure efficient transfer requires that port reception allowed to burn high sulphur
and combustion. This is achieved facilities should be available in fuels.
by use of steam for the bunker ports in order to accommodate
and storage tanks and a series the discharge of oily waste, In order to meet the new
of heaters between the tanks garbage and other types of international requirements set
and the engine fuel pumps and waste. In the main ports around out for these so called ECA’s
injectors to keep the oil between the globe, waste handling has
40°C in the main bunkers and created flourishing businesses
120°C at the main engine especially in the field of oily
injectors. waste. Due to the increase of
the oil price, the recycling of
As we have seen, heavy fuel oil oily waste became a booming
is a residue from the crude oil business from collection, storage,
refining process and as such is pre-treatment and refining of oily
the dregs of the process. It is waste.
used as a marine engine fuel
because of its cheapness, but it Next to sludge, other sources of
does contain a lot of impurities. oily waste are: slops which are
As a result some parts of HFO cargo residues (oily slops), and
will not suitable for burning in used lube oil after the change of
the engine and will be pumped lube oil. All types of oily waste
to the sludge tank. The sludge generated by shipping in Europe
production depends of course generates a few million tons of
on the quality of the HFO that is waste oil. As normal refineries
   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32